2020年全年四肖四码

汉语言语交际中提问-回应序列的会话之语言学分析研究

来源: jordan118.com 作者:vicky 发布时间:2020-01-09 论文字数:63255字
论文编号: sb2019121717205428912 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇语言学论文,本研究首先对日常交际中自然会话的录音进行收集;其次,根据 Gail Jefferson 提出的转写体系将所收集的语料进行转写,旨在揭示真实的语言资源背后蕴含的社会秩序;

CHAPTER 1   INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Object of the Present Study
Questions  are  commonly  used  as  a  vehicle  for  doing  other  actions,  for  example invitations:  “Why  don’t  you  come  and  see  me  sometimes.”  (Schegloff,  1984),  offers: “Would you like a cup of coffee?” (Schegloff, 1995), complaints: “Why is it that we have to go there.” (Schegloff, 1984), and requests: “Kin I hev yer light?” and “Is Judy here?” (Schegloff, 1995).  In order to perform these actions successfully,  participants can design their turns by various verbal and non-verbal resources in the question-response sequence. Thus,  the  dissertation  examines  some  of  the  ways  in  which  question  and  its  response characters  contribute  to  the  accomplishment  of  question-response  sequences  and  the implementation of other social actions in mandarin Chinese conversations.  In this thesis, the  episodes  of  question-response  have  been  collected  out  of  five  hundred  minutes telephone  calls  in  daily  conversation  recordings.  Through  close  observation  and  analysis of the natural interaction, the present study aims to carry out a comprehensive research of question-response  sequence  in  mandarin  Chinese,  using  the  method  of  Conversation Analysis (hereafter abbreviated as CA).
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1.2 The Rationale of the Present Research
Guided  by  the  above  observations,  the  present  research  is  to  examine  a  systematic study  on  question  and  response  sequence  in  Chinese  daily  conversation  from  a conversation  analytical  perspective.  The  following  are  the  main  forces  which  drive  the present study to probe into the question and response sequence in Mandarin Chinese.
Firstly, the use of question and response is prevalent that serves as a key resource to organize our social lives. The previous research on question and response in Chinese has been largely conducted from multiple perspectives. For instance, focus on categorizing the question types in terms of different functions attempts to associate the syntactic structures with  various  functions  of  questions.  Linguists  employ  a  pragmatic  point  of  view  in question  and  responses  examining  speech  acts  hidden  behind  question  and  response. Whereas the above research on question and response in Chinese are based on the respects of  structure  and  functions,  little  attention  has  been  given  to  dynamic  and  social  nature lying behind this language phenomenon. In addition, the data used in previous research are not  natural  interaction  in  daily  life,  which  might  be  an  obstacle  to  draw  a  universal practice. The fact that question and response in a natural and authentic circumstance stirs up the interest in investigating it in every detail and particular. 
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CHAPTER 2   LITERATURE   REVIEW

2.1 Introduction
Question  and  its  response  have  played  a  central  role  in  social  interaction,  and  have long  been  studied  from  different  perspectives  at  home  and  abroad.  In  terms  of  language use, there are comparative projects on question-response sequence in various languages. In terms of methodology, the previous research on questions and their responses are mainly approached  from  syntax,  pragmatics,  language  teaching  and  conversation  analysis.  This chapter presents a review of the previous studies from the above fields.
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2.2 The Syntactic Approach to Questions
In  the  philosophy  of  language,  questioning  as  the  contrast  with  declarative  makes  a way  of  exploring  presupposition  and  seeking  information.  In  traditional  grammar, questioning is often marked sentence types, and the operations of transforming declarative into interrogative underlie the syntactic machinery of language.
2.2.1 Classification of questions
On the basis of modal verb, Ma Jianzhong (1898) divides the interrogatives into two categories,  viz.  delivering  message  and  delivering  doubts.  Lv  Shuxiang  (1942)  makes  a more  comprehensive  study  of  interrogative  sentences  in  respect  of  grammar.  Lv  first proposes that the scope of “doubt” and “asking” are not completely consistent. He argues that a sentence can be doubtful and undoubtful. The former does questioning and the latter is  a  rhetorical  question.  Lv  divides  interrogative  sentences  into  two  categories,  that  is, wh-question  and  yes-no  question  and  yes-no  question  is  further  divided  into  alternative question and V-not-V question. Zhu Dexi (1982), Hu Yushu (1995) and Xing Fuyi (2002) categorize  interrogative  as  wh-question,  yes-no  question  and  alternative  question.  Huang Borong  (1984)  makes  a  comparative  analysis  of  structural  features  and  then  divides  the interrogative  sentences  into  four  types,  that  is  yes-no  question,  wh-question,  alternative question  and  V-not-V  question.  Lin  Yuwen  (1985)  discusses  the  classification  criteria  of interrogative sentences and argues that the pattern of interrogative sentence is used as the main basis for classifying, and both form and meaning should be closely combined when referring  to  the  classification  of  the  sentences  pattern.  By  contrast,  Shao  Jingmin  (1996) holds that interrogative sentences provide two different choices, that is, yes-no choice and specific  content  choice.  The  essential  difference  is  that  the  former  gets  a  positive  or negative answer while the latter receives specific content answer. 
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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................... 23
3.1 An Introduction to Conversation Analysis .................................. 23
3.2 Relevant Tools of CA in This Study .............................. 25
CHAPER FOUR QUESTION DESIGN ....................................... 38
4.1 Introduction ....................................... 38
4.2 Question Types ................................... 39
CHAPTER FIVE SOCIAL ACTIONS PERFORMED THROUGH QUESTIONS .. 64
5.1 Introduction ............................ 64
5.2 Seeking Information ............................. 65

CHAPTER 6  RESPONSE DESIGN

6.1 Introduction
In  response  to  questions,  respondents  may  design  their  turn  with  answers,  or, alternatively, non-answer responses; or they may not produce a response at all in Chinese daily  conversation.  Table  5  shows  that  91  percent  of  questions  in  the  corpus  receive  a response whether it is in an answer form or a non-answer response such as “I don’t know”. Thus,  question  is  regarded  as  an  action  after  which  a  response  is  legitimate.  Table  6, however, shows that the percentage of response type vary considerably depending on the question  type.  All  alternative  questions  receive  a  response,  whereas  only  89  percent  of Q-word  questions  do.  Meanwhile,  70  percent  of  polar  questions  and  67  percent  of alternative one get the most of a proper answer, compared to 63 percent Q-word questions. It  is  also  be  noted  that  the  reasons  why  questions  get  a  non-answer  response  or  do  not receive an answer are accountable and can go from not  interpreting the question at all to the difficulty in providing a response or the dispreferred responsive action.
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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION

7.1 Introduction

reeference(omitted)


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